Introduction to the topic

Image

Egg masses of oceanic squid accidently collected in the wild have been observed only from a few spawning events in aquaria, and as a consequence, the study of their embryos, hatchlings and developing larvae is very limited. Squids of the family Ommastrephidae (n=22 species) are distributed in all of the world’s oceans and are characterised by fast growth and a short spawning period located at the end of their life cycle, usually lasting arround one year (Arkhipkin, 2004, Jereb and Roper, 2010). Some of these species (Dosidicus, Illex, Todarodes) undergo high fishing pressure and their captures represents 50-60% of the total world cephalopod captures during recent years (Boyle and Rodhouse, 2005; FAO 2010). These squids spawn spherical or ellipsoid, semitransparent, gelatinous and floating jelly egg masses up to 4 m in diameter containing thousands of eggs (O’Dor and Balch, 1985; Bower and Sakurai, 1996; O’Shea et al., 2004, Staaf et al., 2008).
Despite the accumulated knowledge on the biology and ecology of juvenile, subadult and adult forms, information on their eggs and paralarvae is still very limited and, for most species, does not exist at all.This table contains a summary of the existing studies (reported to 2012) on eggs, egg masses and embryonic development of oegopsid oceanic squids.
During the present project we used in vitro fertilization techniques to understand the abiotic factors that influenced egg development and hatchling performance of the ommastrephid squids. We aimed to analyze the morphology of the wild and laboratory hatched paralarvae, the process of yolk utilization during the first days after hatching and to obtain an experimental protocol for rearing these paralarvae that allows the study of their growth and behaviour.

Picture: Egg mass of the ommastrephid squid Nototodarus gouldi observed at 10 m depth, Poor Knights Islands, New Zealand. From O’Shea et al. 2004.

New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31: 161-166.  Reproduced with permission, photograph from Tony & Jenny Enderby (http://www.flickr.com/photos/enderbynz/).

References cited

  • Arkhipkin, A.I., 2004. Diversity in growth and longevity in short-lived animals: squid of the suborder Oegopsina. Marine and Freswater Research 55, 341-355.
  • Boyle, P.R., Rodhouse, P.G., 2005. Cephalopods: ecology and fisheries. Blackwell Publishers, 452 pp.
  • Bower, J.R., Sakurai, Y., 1996. Laboratory observations on Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) egg masses. American Malacological Bulletin 13, 65-71.
  • FAO. 2010. FAO Yearbook 2008. Fishery and aquaculture statistics. Capture production, 583 p.
  • Jereb, P., Roper, C.F.E., 2010. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cephalopod species known to date. FAO Species catalogue for Fishery Purposes No. 4, Vol. 2. Myopsid and Oegopsid Squids, Rome, 605 pp.
  • O'Dor, R.K., Balch, N., 1985. Properties of Illex illecebrosus egg masses potentially influencing larval oceanographic distribution. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Scientific Council Studies 9, 69-76.
  • O'Shea, S., Bolstad, K., Ritchie, P., 2004. First records of egg masses of Nototodarus gouldi McCoy, 1888 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae), with comments on egg-mass susceptibility to damage by fisheries trawl. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31, 161-166.
  • Staaf, D.J., Camarillo-Coop, S., Haddock, S.H.D., Nyack, A.C., Payne, J., Salinas-Zavala, C.A., Seibel, B.A., Trueblood, L., Widmer, C., Gilly, W.F., 2008. Natural egg mass deposition by the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California and characteristics of hatchlings and paralarvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 759-770.
  •  

Scientific publications related to the topic (to 2012)

  • Arnold, J.M., O' Dor, R.K., 1990. In vitro fertilization and embryonic development of oceanic squid. Journal of Cephalopod Biology 1, 21-36.
  • Balch, N., O'Dor, R.K., Helm, P., 1985. Laboratory rearing of rhynchoteuthions of the ommastrephid squid Illex illecebrosus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Vie et Milieu 35, 243-246.
  • Billings, V.C., Sullivan, M., Vine, H., 2000. Sighting of Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg mass in Indonesian waters and observations of embryonic development. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80, 1139-1140.
  • Boletzky, S. V., Rowe, L., Aroles, L., 1973. Spawning and development of the eggs, in the laboratory, of Illex coindetii (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Veliger 15, 257-258.
  • Bower, J.R., Sakurai, Y., 1996. Laboratory observations on Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) egg masses. American Malacological Bulletin 13, 65-71.
  • Clarke, M.R., 1996. The role of cephalopods in the world's oceans: General conclusions and the future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 351, 1105-1112.
  • Crawford, K., 2002. Culture method for in vitro fertilization to hatching of the squid, Loligo pealeii. Biological Bulletin 203, 216-217.
  • Guerra, A., González, A.F., Rocha, F.J., Sagarminaga, R., Cañadas, A., 2002. Planktonic egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus in the eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Plankton Research 24, 333-338.
  • Hamabe, M., 1962. Embryological studies on the common squid, Ommastrephes sloani pacificus Steenstrup, in the southwestern waters of the Sea of Japan. Bulletin of Japan Sea Regional Fisheries Research Laboratories 10, 1-45 (In Japanese with English abstract).
  • Hamabe, M., 1963. Spawning experiments on the common squid Ommastrephes sloani pacificus Steenstrup in an indoor aquarium. Bulletin of the Japanesse Society for Scientific Fisheries 29, 930-934 (In Japanese with English abstract).
  • Hayashi, H., 1960. Development of the squid Ommastrephes sloani pacificus (Steenstrup). Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University 9, 43-51 (In Japanese with English abstract).
  • Hoving, H.J.T., Laptikhovsky, V., 2007. Getting under the skin: autonomous implantation of squid spermatophores. Biological Bulletin 212, 177-179.
  • Hoving, H.J.T., Lipinski, M.R., Videler, J.J., 2008. Reproductive system and the spermatophoric reaction of the mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis sicula (Ruppell 1844) (Cephalopoda: Octopoteuthidae) from southern African waters. African Journal of Marine Science 30, 603-612.
  • Hoving, H.J.T., Lipinski, M.R., Videler, J.J., Bolstad, K.S.R., 2010. Sperm storage and mating in the deep-sea squid Taningia danae Joubin, 1931 (Oegopsida: Octopoteuthidae). Marine Biology 157, 393-400.
  • Ikeda, Y., Sakurai, Y., Shimazaki, K., 1993. Fertilizing capacity of squid (Todarodes pacificus) spermatozoa collected from various sperm storage sites, with special reference to the role of gelatinous substance from oviducal gland in fertilization and embryonic development. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 23, 39-44.
  • Ikeda, I., Sakurai, Y., 2004. Note on fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa stored in spermatangium: a possible extra sperm storage site in the Japanese Common squid Todarodes pacificus. Suisanzoshoku 52, 101-102.
  • Ikeda, Y., Shimazaki, K., 1995. Does nidamental gland jelly induce the formation of perivitelline space at fertilization in the squid Todarodes pacificus? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 75, 495-497.
  • Kimura, S., Higuchi, Y., Aminaka, M., Bower, J.R., Sakurai, Y., 2004. Chemical properties of egg-mass mucin complexes of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70, 117-121.
  • Klein, K.C., Jaffe, L.A., 1984. Development of in vitro fertilized eggs of the squid Loligo pealei and techniques for dechorionation and artificial activation. Biological Bulletin 167, 518-519.
  • Laptikhovsky, V.V., Nigmatullin, C.M., 1996. The biflagellate spermatozoa of the squid genus Illex (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae): morphology, activity and concentration in spermatophores. Ruthenica 6, 149-159.
  • Naef, A., 1928. Cephalopoda, Embryology. Part I, Vol II (Final part of Monograph No. 35). In: Fauna and Flora of the Bay of Naples, 35, 1- 461. Translated by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, D.C. 2000.
  • Naud, M.J., Havenhand, J.N., 2006. Sperm motility and longevity in the giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Marine Biology 148, 559-566.
  • Nesis K.N., 1995. Mating, spawning and death in oceanic cephalopods: a review. Ruthenica 6, 23-64.
  • Nesis, K.N., Nigmatullin, C.M., Nikitina, I.V., 1998. Spent females of deepwater squid Galiteuthis glacialis under the ice at the surface of the Weddell sea (Antarctic). Journal of Zoology 244, 185-200.
  • Nigmatullin, C., Sabirov, R.M., Zalygalin, V.P., 2003. Ontogenetic aspects of morphology, size, structure and production of spermatophores in ommastrephid squids: an overview. Berliner Palaeobiologische Abhandlungen 3, 225-240.
  • O'Dor, R.K., Balch, N., Foy, E.A., Hirtle, R.W.M., Johnston, D.A., Amaratunga, T., 1982. Embryonic development of the squid, Illex illecebrosus, and effect of temperature on development rates. Journal of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science 3, 41-45.
  • O'Dor, R.K., Balch, N., 1985. Properties of Illex illecebrosus egg masses potentially influencing larval oceanographic distribution. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Scientific Council Studies 9, 69-76.
  • O'Shea, S., Bolstad, K., Ritchie, P., 2004. First records of egg masses of Nototodarus gouldi McCoy, 1888 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae), with comments on egg-mass susceptibility to damage by fisheries trawl. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 31, 161-166.
  • Sakai, M., Brunetti, N.E., Elena, B., Sakurai, Y., 1998. Embryonic development and hatchlings of Illex argentinus derived from artificial fertilization. South African Journal of Marine Science 20, 255-265.
  • Sakai, M., Brunetti, N., Ivanovic, M.L., Elena, B., Sakurai, Y., 2011. Useful techniques for artificial fertilization of the ommastrephid squid Illex argentinus. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 45, 301-308.
  • Sakurai, Y., Young, R.E., Hirota, J., Mangold, K., Vecchione, M., Clarke, M.R., Bower, J., 1995. Artificial fertilization and development through hatching in the oceanic squids Ommastrephes bartramii and Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Veliger 38, 185-191.
  • Sakurai, Y., Bower, J.R., Nakamura, Y., Yamamoto, S., Watanabe, K., 1996. Effect of temperature on development and survival of Todarodes pacificus embryos and paralarvae. American Malacological Bulletin 13, 89-95.
  • Staaf, D.J., Zeidberg, L.D., Gilly, W.F., 2011. Effects of temperature on embryonic development of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 441, 165-175.
  • Staaf, D.J., Camarillo-Coop, S., Haddock, S.H.D., Nyack, A.C., Payne, J., Salinas-Zavala, C.A., Seibel, B.A., Trueblood, L., Widmer, C., Gilly, W.F., 2008. Natural egg mass deposition by the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California and characteristics of hatchlings and paralarvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 759-770.
  • Vidal, E.A.G., Haimovici, M., 1998. Feeding and the possible role of the proboscis and mucus cover in the ingestion of microorganisms by rhynchoteuthion paralarvae (Cephalopoda:Ommastrephidae). Bull. Mar. Sci. 63, 305-316.
  • Villanueva, R., Quintana, D., Petroni, G., Bozzano, A., 2011. Factors influencing the embryonic development and hatchling size of the oceanic squid Illex coindetii following in vitro fertilization. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 407: 54-62.
  • Villanueva, R., Staaf, D.J., Argüelles, J., Bozzano, A., Camarillo-Coop, S., Nigmatullin, C.M., Petroni, G., Quintana, D., Sakai, M., Sakurai, Y., Salinas-Zavala, C.A., De Silva-Dávila, R., Tafur, R., Yamashiro, C., Vidal, E.A.G. 2012. A laboratory guide to in vitro fertilization of oceanic squids. Aquaculture, 342-343: 125-133.
  • Watanabe, K., Sakurai, Y., Segawa, S., Okutani, T., 1996. Development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus, from fertilized egg to rhynchoteuthion paralarva. American Malacological Bulletin 13, 73-88.
  • Yatsu, A., Tafur, R., Maravi, C., 1999. Embryos and rhynchoteuthion paralarvae of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda) obtained through artificial fertilization from Peruvian waters. Fisheries Science 65, 904-908.
  • Young, R.E., Harman, R.F., 1985. Early life history stages of enoploteuthin squids (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidae) from Hawaiian waters. Vie et Milieu 35, 181-201.
  • Young, R.E., Harman, R.F., Mangold, K.M., 1985a. The common occurrence of oegopsid squid eggs in near-surface oceanic waters. Pacific Science 39, 359-366.